Continuing System Improvements Sector

The Continuing System Improvements sector has sub-tabs for Modernization and Software Maintenance & Tech Refresh.


The Modernization sub-sector allows recurring modernization costs to be defined, along with up to five modernization programs. A modernization program applies to all aircraft that are in service at the time of the modernization. Aircraft that come into service after the modernization program starts are assumed to include the update off the production line and so will not incur the modernization cost.

The Recurring tab allows recurring modernization costs to be specified as a fixed cost per aircraft per year or as a profiled annual cost for up to five items.

Continuing System Improvements - Recurring Modernization Costs

Recurring Modernization tab

The remaining five tabs allow individual modernization programs to be defined. Each program has a start year (years after the introduction of the first aircraft) which must have a non-zero value to enable the remaining numerical inputs on the tab, indicating that the program is active.

Continuing System Improvements - Modernization Program

Tab for a modernization program

The program will have an aircraft downtime in months and a capacity that limits the number of aircraft that can be in modernization at any one time (there is also the option to apply unlimited capacity). In the OSCAM simulation, aircraft will enter the modernization program using the same pattern as the introduction profile unless the capacity constraint limits the number of aircraft that can be in the modernization program at the same time.

If the Start Year for the Program and Aircraft Downtime inputs are specified such that the aircraft cannot complete the modernization before retirement then these inputs will be highlighted in red and a message will be displayed at the bottom of the screen. It will not be possible to run the simulation until these input values are resolved. The warning message does not take into account any delays in the program due to capacity constraints or conflicting demands on aircraft due to more than one modernization program running at the same time. The OSCAM simulation will not put an aircraft into a modernization program if the aircraft is scheduled for age related retirement before the modernization will be completed.

The modernization program costs are specified as a non-recurring cost that is incurred when the first aircraft enters the modernization and a cost that is incurred for each aircraft that enters the modernization. Each modernization program allows the specification of a number of impacts on the aircraft. Aircraft life and flying hours ceiling extensions can be specified, which are reflected in the extended life and ceiling shown in the Program Profile. There are nine factors which can be edited to account for the impact the modernization has on labor hours, maintenance actions, DLR costs and consumables costs. These are specified separately for aircraft and engine maintenance. There is also a factor for software maintenance costs.

Software and Tech Refresh

The Software and Tech Refresh sub-sector has costs related to software maintenance and technical refresh of systems, support equipment and training equipment. Both of these allow costs to be specified as an annual fixed cost, an annual cost per aircraft and an annual profile table.

Continuing System Improvements - Software and Tech Refresh

Software and Tech Refresh tab